Anemia is present in almost 5% of adults worldwide and accompanies clinical findings in many diseases.

Diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and liver are a common cause of anemia, so patients with anemia are often referred to a gastroenterologist.

Anemia could be caused by various factors such as chronic bleeding, malabsorption, or chronic inflammation. In clinical practice, iron deficiency anemia and the combined forms of anemia due to different pathophysiological mechanisms are most common. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and the small intestine examinations in specific situations play a crucial role in diagnosing anemia. In anemic, GI asymptomatic patients, there are recommendations for bidirectional endoscopy. Although GI malignancies are the most common cause of chronic bleeding, all conditions leading to blood loss, malabsorption, and chronic inflammation should be considered. From a gastroenterologist's perspective, the clinical spectrum of anemia is vast because many different digestive tract diseases lead to bleeding. Key Messages: The gastroenterological approach in solving anemia's problem requires an optimal strategy, consideration of the accompanying clinical signs, and the fastest possible diagnosis. Although patients with symptoms of anemia are often referred to gastroenterologists, the diagnostic approach requires further improvement in everyday clinical practice.

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